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=====Ch. 4: Language Varieties=====

=====Effective language has:=====

====Correctness====
Well formed grammatically

====Clarity====
Writer's choices are understandable

====Forcefulness====
Finding the memorable or striking expression that reinforces the message

====Appropriateness====
Proper behavior according to circumstances

=====Three levels of appropriateness=====
====Low====
Conversational and colloquial -- everyday speaking language.
Contractions, vulgar/obscene language, "he goes/I'm like," etc.

====Middle====
Neutral, fitted for straight narration and exposition
No one's native language -- must be learned

====High====
Very formal, used in the most serious topics
Polysyllabic words; long, complex sentence; elaborate connectives; heavy punctuation

=====English Varients=====
====Regiolects====
Different Englishes spoken in different geographic regions.

====Sociolects====
Different Englishes spoken due to different social, racial or ethnic groups

====Ideolects====
each person develops a set of language habits unique to that person
favorite words, phrases, written and spoken tendencies and patterns

=====Registers=====
Subsets of language tied to a particular activity or situation
Different registers are appropriate for different circumstances

====Disciplinary Registers====
Include a special lexicon and special ways of talking and writing in a field of learning -- such as in astronomy or accounting

===Subject Labels===
Some words have different meanings for different people

====Occupational Registers====
Fluid subset of the language, but recognizable because of the repeating who, where, when, and why of its use (Law enforcement talk)

====Specialists's register====
The ability of an expert of a topic to talk about that topic in a way that many people cannot fully understand.

====Genres====
A set of language that has consistent language features or registers
For example, sports stories tend to use a consistent lexicon and predictable sentence patterns

=====Shifting/Mixing Language Varieties=====
Swaying between language varieties, if done carefully, can be effective.
Must take into account the ethos, audience, situation and genre. ("less politely known as bullshit")

====Register Shift====
Switching between registers in order to be understood by multiple sections of audience.

====Register Mixing (more extensive)====
Involves writing part of a text in one language variety and part in another
Common in documents required by law to address several audiences.

====Humor====
It may be funny to a reader if an unexpected or inappropriate register is used effectively

=====Familiar Language=====
Communicates immediately, conveying not only content but also shared values and attitudes with the reader

====Cliches====
Reused (or overused) phrases--(hit the nail on the head)

====Idioms====
Oft-repeated phrases in which the meanings are not the sum of their parts--(put your best foot forward)

====Catch Phrases====
Flare up to wide use and then subside--(just say no)

====Allusions====
The importation of a phrase from one context into another--(If you build it, he will come/shoeless Bo Jackson)




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