Notes On Links

Things to look into:

When was Nabokov's Pale Fire written, that is just a series of Hypertext in away.
What about Riddly Walker by Russel Hoban?

"Weave a circle round him thrice,
and close your eyes with holy dread,
for he on honey-dew hath fed,
and drunk the milk of paradise..."

knock-knock "gosh darn it I was really on to something there"

General Notes on the Works-- Patterns of Hypertext
Interesting read but way-way out there, I'd like to see some examples of what he is referring too.

A Poetics of the Link
Contradicts and challenges much of the Lynch way of thinking.

Nielsen Group, Writing Links, 2014
Try to establish themselves as business gurus with limited success

Price, Cook Up Hot Links
Unfortunately very outdated

Lynch, Links
Still suffers from being outdated but less so. Some good introductory material.

A glimpse into the creation of links; early concepts and struggles.

No Surprises

Radiohead song-- nope, a 9th grade textbook passage "CALCULATE THE MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE OF A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM" I guess there will be surprises in the links.

"Lynch dedicates only one page in Editorial Style to content links. What would you make of that?"

Underrepresented, although links are covered in other ways throughout the book.

More than just getting from A to B.

Lynch-- Two types: navigational links, and hypertext links
Descriptive links

Links are not just links --especially in Ted Nelsons view. Links are part of Xanadu -- a system of universal inforamtion and much more.

"Bonus! Hot Text chapter (146K, PDF, 2.5 minutes at 56K)" Example of outdated linking style from "Cooking Up Hotlinks"

"Finally, the best links start with the most important words. Frontloading the link name helps users scan the page more easily: we’ve learned from our eye tracking research that people mostly look at the first 2 words of a link. Keep this finding in mind if you’re tempted to start all the links on the page with the same introductory text, such as Read more about…."--Nielsen Norman Group

I think they missed the word only somewhere in there. Disagree with the research in general. But links are not tools for SEO.

When you make a reference, qualify it with a clue to allow some people to skip it. —Berners-Lee (1998)
Literary Effect
As tools of grammar --A poetics of link. Not directly stated.
Optional material?

Link when you want, not when a page dictates it. Like netflix shows and show length.

link for examples, supplemental information, video explanations, pictures, relevant news articles, different sections of your websites, return to top of the website.
A Poetics of the Link
Jeff Parker
For literary effect.

An Emotive (or Romance) Link. , A Lateral Link. A Complicating Link. A Temporal Link. A Portal Link.

links provide a fuller user experience and add depth to content and acknowledgment of the work others have done.

Relevance rating??? --Cooking Up Hot Links
Why include non-relevant information. How do you know how relevant it is?
Feels dated.

"Most links in a website should point to other resources within your site" -Lynch
Why? Works for educational sites, but does this make sense for news/blog style sites.

"When placing links on the page, put only the most salient links within the body of your text, and group all minor, illustrative, parenthetic, or footnote links at the bottom of the document where they are available but not distracting." --Lynch
Links to what?
"Link color allows readers to differentiate visited and unvisited pages. Link colors can be standard browser colors (left) or custom colors set using CSS (right)." --Lynch
"Eyes Are Drawn to Links
Users scan web pages looking for clues as to what the page is about and where to go next. They use sign posts, such as headings and bolded keywords, as shortcuts to information. Hyperlinks also attract users’ attention and need to stand out, both visually and contextually. Underlined blue text is still the most obvious visual indicator of a link. Easy-to-understand links make the page more scannable because they provide both information about what is on the page and an idea of where to go next."
They didn't use underlined blue text in this example. It's just blue. And I don't know where the link is going.

Now you have a variety of other options, not the least of which is to open a link in a new browser. Or even in very same window.
"Keep the link text fairly short, but offer supplementary description of the content on the target page. In running text, describe the target before providing the linktext. In a list of links, put the link first, then the description (perhaps starting on another line)."
Why no mention of picture or button?
External take user off of the site

Links have different meaning in different context--
eg. re-reading Joyce
By five the sun sets and the afternoon melt freezes again across the blacktop into crystal octopi and palms of ice-- rivers and continents beset by fear, and we walk out to the car, the snow moaning beneath our boots...
Links let the reader know there is relevant content not on this page.
(side note: is wrack a word?)
Indicate on a nonessential aspect
Through Cycle?
"In the Cycle, the reader returns to a previously-visited node and eventually departs along a new path. Cycles create recurrence [12] and so express the presence of structure. Kolb's Socrates In The Labyrinth [45] discusses the role of the Cycle in argumentation, showing how hypertext cycles emerge naturally from traditional argumentative forms. Cyclical repetition also modulates the experience of the hypertext [44], emphasizing key points while relegating others to the background. " Bernstein
What is he getting at?
Joyces Cycle--
Interesting points about Joyce but how is this related to hypertext and links???
Douglas's Cycle--
Exhaustion of hypertext-- example?
Web Ring--
I used to see these with blogs a long time ago... Not sure if thats what he's referring too, to be honest I'm a little lost.

Links cause design problems- 2 fundemental according to lynch.
The disrupt the flow. (Really?)
"They can also radically alter the context of information by dumping the users into unfamiliar territory without preamble or explanation when they follow the embedded links to new pages" --Lynch (Links should provide examples or clarification...)

"Ergodic literature is a term coined by Espen J. Aarseth in his book Cybertext—Perspectives on Ergodic Literature, and is derived from the Greek words ergon, meaning "work", and hodos, meaning "path". Aarseth's book contains the most commonly cited definition:

In ergodic literature, nontrivial effort is required to allow the reader to traverse the text. If ergodic literature is to make sense as a concept, there must also be nonergodic literature, where the effort to traverse the text is trivial, with no extranoematic responsibilities placed on the reader except (for example) eye movement and the periodic or arbitrary turning of pages.[1]:1 Wikipedia Ergodic Literature

In setting up his discussion of a Cybertext’s navigation, the very trait that makes it ergodic for him, Aarseth writes, "During the cybertextual process, the user will have effectuated a semiotic sequence, and this selective movement is a work of physical construction that the various concepts of reading do not account for."
--A Poetics of the Link

Hypertext Issues -Xanadu

For Nelson, the challenge of hypertext is in some senses autobiographical, a way of arguing against historical time and its expected closures. The very name Xanadu™ expresses the problem of narrative endings as Nelson sees it. 


One of the great unfinished dreams of the computer field ... Literary System, Storage Engine, Hypertext and Hypermedia Server, Virtual Document Coordinator, Write-Once Network Storage Manager, Electronic Publishing Method, Open Hypermedium, Non-Hierarchical Filing System, Linked All-Media Repository Archive, Paperless Publishing Medium, and Readdressing Software. The Magic Place of Literary Memory™.

Xanadu, friend, is my dream.

The name comes from the poem; Coleridge’s little story of the artistic trance (and the Person from Porlock) makes it an appropriate name for the pleasure dome of the creative writer. The Citizen Kane connotations, and any other connotations you may find in the poem, are side benefits.

I have been working on Xanadu, under this and other names, for fourteen years now.

Make that twenty-seven years.19

Xanadu "the pleasure dome of the creative writer"

What is interesting about the poem is that it is in every way a model hypertext. In the first instance, the apparently unmediated version of the poem is already a vision of a vision, Coleridge’s quotation of what the Khan saw. And in the version that we get as readers, it is citational on another level: it is Coleridge’s transcription and annotation of his own memory. Moreover, in keeping with the Romantic resonance of the poem (“a vision in a dream, a fragment”), Nelson’s narrative of Xanadu also goes back to childhood.

Metamogrification, piece-whole diddlework, grandesigning, tagnebuposis--
chiasmatic, Anatomy. a crossing or decussation, as that of the optic nerves at the base of the brain.
Cell Biology. a point of overlap of paired chromatids at which fusion and exchange of genetic material take place during prophase of meiosis.
from Greek khiasma wooden crosspiece, from khiazein to mark with an X

Frank Baum,
Xanadu paradigm might not be symptomatic of a generalized attention deficit disorder "We need a more positive term for that"

What does he mean, what you miss is the link as gap???
Mouse as scaple, cutting across the screen-- how far to take body metaphor

I think that when the real media of the future arrive, the smallest child will know it right away (and perhaps first). ... When you can’t tear a teeny kid away from the computer screen, we’ll have gotten there.32

Other than ease of access how is, hypertexting different than a footnote?
The goal of Xanadu, on one hand, is total instantaneous information access. On the other, it is continuous revelation of interconnectedness without the dilution of specificity. At one pole stands the dream of a universal archive, at the other, the fragmented and nomadic appropriation of knowledge of all sorts. Hypertext becomes a system for the production and management of such “loose ends.

(Curriculum means ‘little racetrack’ in Latin.) A curriculum promotes a false simplification of any subject,

Freewriting from the structures of linearity
Hypertext is an ordinary kind of writing.

We must assume there will never be a final and definitive view of anything. And yet this system functions. LITERATURE IS DEBUGGED.

The same might be said of footnotes or marginalia, of nested glosses such as those in the Talmud or medieval manuscripts, or of “Choose Your Own Adventure” stories. Such texts allow readers to move by shifts, jumps, and returns that confound the notion of textual linearity.7

Natural Networks-- Mangrove trees, Fairy rings, Dragonfly wings, Leaf Structure, Blood Vessels, Fluvial Outwash Plain, Vila Nova de Milfontes (Natural pooling in protected water pockets -- don't know technical name) Lightning, River system, Bird migration routes, Slime molds, Deep Caves, Algal Mat, Coral Reef,

Low Tech manmade -- Eiffel Tower, Ferris Wheel, Afghan Quilt, Chainmail, Fishing net, Oil Pipeline, Roadmap, Maze. Highway system, Ancestral / Evolution Tree, The Silk Road, Shipping Trade Routes

Others: Proust, As we will see, Looking ahead,

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