Stoner and Perkins Chap 5: Analysis and Patterns


This seems to be a short chapter, but take note of the procedures it details: You draw on a search model.

In analysis, you aim to discover and report something new and useful about the message. To do so, the critic draws on a search model: expert knowledge, organized sets of concepts that provide a ready-made set of topics to apply to the message (70). The search model uses technical terms and concepts. This can be tricky because the technical term may not be the same as everyday, non-technical language. Technical terms are more tightly defined than everyday use, and they are shared in the field.

So, style in rhetorical theory does not refer to one's personal style of expression, but to patterns of word choice, syntactical structures, and figuration in order to persuade.

Ditto the term appeals: in rhetoric, we persuade by casting appeals: it's a NOUN, not a verb, and it means "the means." A logical appeal does not appeal to a sense of logic. A logical appeal is fashioned to appear reasonable. S&P refer to Reason as a Means of Persuasion (151). Likewise, rhetors use Emotion as a Means, and Credibility as a Means - and they use all three often at the same time. Because the definitions are tight, however, we can usually trace out the use of each means in one message.

Analysis
The process of systematically discovering, identifying, and articulating the various parts of the message and the relationship of those parts to one another (S&P, 69)

At this point, you bring in a search model - a theory - and draw on your description to address two ends.


Analysis builds on observations generated by description by bringing a conceptual framework (a search pattern or theory) into play. Analysis continues to focus on how the message works rather than interpreting its significance or evaluating the effectiveness.

An analysis stands out in that the critic says up front what she's doing, mentioning the theory being used and openly applying those theoretical concepts.

• the theory brought to bear on the artifact is articulated (Classical Rhetoric as presented by S&P, chap 9.) and
• the critic applies those well-articulated concepts to the artifact.




analysis refers to the process of systematically discovering, identifying, and articulating the various parts of the message and the relationship of those parts to one another (69).

makes visible the key rhetorical elements of the message and the key interactions of those elements. doing so uncovers the choices message creators made

you focus your attention on the potential choices available to the rhetor in the situation, and the specific choices actually made - doing so tells us about the people involved - and by looking at a number of messages, we start seeing patterns.

it builds on description -
Analysis brings in technical terms and concepts.
analysis aims at teaching us something new and useful about the message- and people
by
naming the parts and describing the relationship between the parts to show HOW the text works -

a good analysis names the parts and relationships between the parts according to a search model - a coherent theory that has been tested.

Analysis is marked by applying the terms of the search model: enthymeme, argument, organization

You apply your growing knowledge of rhetoric to examine the parts and how they interact: how the message works - how each is impacted by the other

Two moves -

naming the parts - via strategies
looking for rhetorical patterns within the message

we use a search model - theory - that defines a rhetorical (or other) point of view to take on the message


Important in analysis: Patterns
not singular incidents - those are anomalies - but PATTERNS
and discovering patterns is a creative act

look at each of these in class and ask
what might we look for where?
eg: does the image content form patterns? color form any consistencies? any anomalies?

gloss these and then apply to target text

patterns of repetition - in images? in texts?
patterns of sequencing -
patterns of omission - not simply that the Cummins doesn't mention much of her childhood, but it doesn't who she's dating. do those omissions form a pattern?
anomalies to patterns - those fall into patters, too. But you also note things that don't fit for some reason.
patterns of relationships

relation of rhetor and audience, content to audience, content to page, text to image?

Look to patterns to begin and control your analysis - to determine when it's done -




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