Revision history for PresentationalEnthymemesOnTheBSUHomePage


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Last edited on 2017-10-11 09:14:36 by MorganAdmin

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Validity and strength: The presentation and the ideation both invoke a bandwagon fallacy: EVERYBODY wants these tickets! YOU should want these tickets! But this use of the bandwagon fallacy doesn't weaken the enthymeme. It //motivates// it for the intended audience. This audience //wants// to be on the bandwagon, wants to be part of the group that has season tickets, and the enthymeme is their notification that if they don't act now, they will be left behind.
Deletions:
Validity and strength: The presentation and the ideation both invoke a bandwagon fallacy: EVERYBODY wants these tickets! YOU should want these tickets! But this use of the bandwagon fallacy doesn't weaken the enthymeme but motivates it for the intended audience. This audience //wants// to be on the bandwagon, wants to be part of the group that has season tickets, and the enthymeme is their notification that if they don't act now, they will be left behind.


Revision [26903]

Edited on 2017-10-11 08:32:45 by MorganAdmin
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//updated 11 Oct 2017 //
4. Review Longaker on validity and fallacies. Use the list of fallacies on pp 65-66. Check each of your analyses of the presentational enthymemes against the list to see if it's fallacious or not. If it is, make some notes on what that might mean. Does the presentation of the enthymeme show the fallaciousness? or is it more in your construction of the ideational enthymeme from the presentation? Consider if the fallaciousness of the enthymeme has any bearing for the intended audience on the persuasiveness of the enthymeme.
//Fallacies// are common errors in the line of reasoning that (tend to) render an argument invalid. //Validity// is a function of the line of reasoning, and the fallacies Longaker lists are common - in wide circulation - ill-suited lines of reasoning.
We're looking at fallacies as a way of considering the validity of the ideational enthymeme behind the presentation. We're actually checking our construction of the enthymeme. But because the presentational enthymeme shapes that construction, the fallaciousness lies in the presentational side of things. That is, presentational enthymemes might be constructed so that intended viewers create a fallacious enthymeme.
An enthymeme can be fallacious but still be persuasive. Or it can be valid but not persuasive. "Enthymemes ... can be judged as relatively weak or strong, depending on the audience's degree of ... adherence to the reasons and presuppositions of the claim" (64). We see this in my analysis of the chalked sidewalk message below.
The list of fallacies that Longaker presents are fallacies that are in common circulation and use. They are part of the presuppositions that our culture more or less works with. We all use them in common argument, and we tend to overlook their use. When we get critical of each other, we may point them out to weaken the validity of a presentational enthymeme. But as rhetorical analysts, we're obligated to locate them and consider how they work.
Validity and strength: The presentation and the ideation both invoke a bandwagon fallacy: EVERYBODY wants these tickets! YOU should want these tickets! But this use of the bandwagon fallacy doesn't weaken the enthymeme but motivates it for the intended audience. This audience //wants// to be on the bandwagon, wants to be part of the group that has season tickets, and the enthymeme is their notification that if they don't act now, they will be left behind.
Deletions:
4. Review Longaker on validity and fallacies. Use the list of fallacies on pp 65-66. Check each of your analyses of the presentational enthymemes against the list to see if it's fallacious or not. If it is, make some notes on what that might mean. Does the presentation of the enthymeme show the fallaciousness? or is it more in your construction of the ideational enthymeme from the presentation?
We're looking at fallacies as a way of considering the validity of the ideational enthymeme behind the presentation. We're actually checking our construction of the enthymeme. But because the presentational enthymeme shapes that construction, the fallaciousness lies in the presentational side of things. That is, presentational enthymemes might be constructed to that intended viewers
Fallacies: common errors in reasoning that render an argument invalid. Validity is a function of the line of reasoning - and the fallacies listed here are common - in wide circulation - ill-suited lines of reasoning.
Review the list. These are common: in common circulation, they are part of the presuppositions that our culture more or less works with. Do we use these? In certain situations, yes. Others will point them out to weaken the validity of a presentational enthymeme.
What we'll be looking at the distance between the formally presentation of the enthymeme and the underlying ideation of the enthymeme.
An enthymeme can be invalid but still persuasive; and valid but not persuasive.: "Enthymemes ... be judged as relatively weak or strong, depending on the audience's degree of ... adherence to the reasons and presuppositions of the claim." 64
What you're looking at here is a distance between the formal presentation of the enthymeme and the underlying ideation of the enthymeme that we imagine the intended audience to make
We'll start part 2 in class on Tue 10 Oct, when we'll address //validity//.


Revision [26902]

Edited on 2017-10-11 08:10:14 by MorganAdmin
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4. Review Longaker on validity and fallacies. Use the list of fallacies on pp 65-66. Check each of your analyses of the presentational enthymemes against the list to see if it's fallacious or not. If it is, make some notes on what that might mean. Does the presentation of the enthymeme show the fallaciousness? or is it more in your construction of the ideational enthymeme from the presentation?
==Notes on validity and strength==
We're looking at fallacies as a way of considering the validity of the ideational enthymeme behind the presentation. We're actually checking our construction of the enthymeme. But because the presentational enthymeme shapes that construction, the fallaciousness lies in the presentational side of things. That is, presentational enthymemes might be constructed to that intended viewers
Deletions:
Review Longaker on validity and fallacies. Use the list of fallacies on pp 65-66. Check each of your analyses of the presentational enthymemes against the list to see if it's fallacious or not. If it is, make some notes on what that might mean. Does the presentation of the enthymeme show the fallaciousness? or is it more in your construction of the ideational enthymeme from the presentation?
Look at fallacies as a way of checking if there is an ideational enthymeme behind the presentation, or to check the validity of the ideational enthymeme behind the presentation.


Revision [26901]

Edited on 2017-10-11 07:57:18 by MorganAdmin
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Consider //validity// and //strength//
Review Longaker on validity and fallacies. Use the list of fallacies on pp 65-66. Check each of your analyses of the presentational enthymemes against the list to see if it's fallacious or not. If it is, make some notes on what that might mean. Does the presentation of the enthymeme show the fallaciousness? or is it more in your construction of the ideational enthymeme from the presentation?
Look at fallacies as a way of checking if there is an ideational enthymeme behind the presentation, or to check the validity of the ideational enthymeme behind the presentation.
Fallacies: common errors in reasoning that render an argument invalid. Validity is a function of the line of reasoning - and the fallacies listed here are common - in wide circulation - ill-suited lines of reasoning.
Review the list. These are common: in common circulation, they are part of the presuppositions that our culture more or less works with. Do we use these? In certain situations, yes. Others will point them out to weaken the validity of a presentational enthymeme.
What we'll be looking at the distance between the formally presentation of the enthymeme and the underlying ideation of the enthymeme.
An enthymeme can be invalid but still persuasive; and valid but not persuasive.: "Enthymemes ... be judged as relatively weak or strong, depending on the audience's degree of ... adherence to the reasons and presuppositions of the claim." 64
What you're looking at here is a distance between the formal presentation of the enthymeme and the underlying ideation of the enthymeme that we imagine the intended audience to make


Revision [26682]

Edited on 2017-10-05 08:33:58 by MorganAdmin
Additions:
The chalked message is a //cap// that //initiates the inference// of a presentational enthymeme. The sidewalk typically doesn't have a message on it, so the presence of a message starts the inference. Chalked messages aren't unexpected at a university, and are typically used to announce events of interest to the university community: they are typically not personal messages. Being written in chalk, the message is temporary and timely. Chalk messages that are of interest to the university community are presumably sanctioned by the university administration. They are not graffiti. [considering forum and medium]
Appeals: The presentational emphasis on //immediacy// is an appeal to //pathos//, especially in winding up excitement in buying the in-demand season tickets. This is deliberative prose, placed and phrased for an instant, immediate, and unconsidered choice. It might also operate as a reminder for students who have been considering the tickets, but the emphasis on immediate action ("Limited Quantity!!!", the temporary presence of the the message, the placement of the message at the Y of the sidewalk) emphasizes pathos over consideration of logos ("Are they expensive? Can I afford this?"). Ethos - the character of the message - is carried by pathos: Excitement of owning, excitement of the games. The !!! carries this blend of pathos and ethos. Pathos doesn't persuade but is designed to put the viewer in an emotional state to be persuaded. This presentational enthymeme is almost all pathos.
Deletions:
The chalked message is a //cap// that //initiates the inference// of a presentational enthymeme. The sidewalk typically doesn't have a message on it, so the presence of a message starts the inference. Chalked messages aren't unexpected at a university, and are typically used to announce events of interest to the university community: they are typically not personal messages. Being written in chalk, the message is temporary and timely. Chalk messages that are of interest to the university community are presumably sanctioned by the university administration. They are not graffiti.


Revision [26681]

Edited on 2017-10-05 08:21:16 by MorganAdmin
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The //materials involved// are the sidewalk (public thoroughfare where walkers can be expected), the medium of chalk (temporary, which lets viewers infer an immediacy to the message), and placement to create a //designed encounter// for students //leaving// HS from the south-west door. The message is directed at those students, at the moment when they would choose to follow the sidewalk to the left to get to HMU Info Desk. This positioning is a further emphasis on the immediacy of the claim: Buy a season ticket now."
The message is designed to prompt viewers to //infer a claim// that suits the content of the stated message. The //claim//, "You should buy a season now." The //data// is the message itself as a reminder. There are //signals in the message// that initiate the inference: use of the word "still" in an emphatic position. The callout placement of "Limited Quantity" in a highlighted space separate from the main message (speech bubble). Three !!!
Deletions:
In this case: The //materials involved// are the sidewalk (public thoroughfare where walkers can be expected), the medium of chalk (temporary, which lets viewers infer an immediacy to the message), and placement to create an encounter between HS and choosing to walk to the union.
The message is designed to prompt viewers to //infer a claim// that suits the content of the stated message. The //claim//, "You should buy a season ticket very soon." The //data// is the message itself as a reminder. There are //signals in the message// that initiate the inference: use of the word "still" in an emphatic position. The callout placement of "Limited Quantity" in a highlighted space separate from the main message (speech bubble). Three !!!


Revision [26680]

Edited on 2017-10-05 08:16:47 by MorganAdmin
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==== An example analysis ====
The chalked sidewalk message outside HS on 27 Sep 2016. The image is on [[http://erhetoric.org/Erhetoric/wikka.php?wakka=ATheoryOfPresentationalEnthymemes | this page.]]
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==== An example ====
Example Analysis: The chalked sidewalk message outside HS on 27 Sep 2016


Revision [26676]

Edited on 2017-10-05 08:11:29 by MorganAdmin
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==== An example ====
Example Analysis: The chalked sidewalk message outside HS on 27 Sep 2016
The chalked message is a //cap// that //initiates the inference// of a presentational enthymeme. The sidewalk typically doesn't have a message on it, so the presence of a message starts the inference. Chalked messages aren't unexpected at a university, and are typically used to announce events of interest to the university community: they are typically not personal messages. Being written in chalk, the message is temporary and timely. Chalk messages that are of interest to the university community are presumably sanctioned by the university administration. They are not graffiti.
In this case: The //materials involved// are the sidewalk (public thoroughfare where walkers can be expected), the medium of chalk (temporary, which lets viewers infer an immediacy to the message), and placement to create an encounter between HS and choosing to walk to the union.
The message is designed to prompt viewers to //infer a claim// that suits the content of the stated message. The //claim//, "You should buy a season ticket very soon." The //data// is the message itself as a reminder. There are //signals in the message// that initiate the inference: use of the word "still" in an emphatic position. The callout placement of "Limited Quantity" in a highlighted space separate from the main message (speech bubble). Three !!!
Deletions:
=== An example ===
Example: The chalked sidewalk message outside HS on 27 Sep 2016
The chalked message is a cap that initiates the inference of a presentational enthymeme. The sidewalk typically doesn't have a message on it, so the presence of a message starts the inference. Chalked messages aren't unexpected at a university, and are typically used to announce events of interest to the university community: they are typically not personal messages. Being written in chalk, the message is temporary and timely. Chalk messages that are of interest to the university community are presumably sanctioned by the university administration. They are not graffiti.
IN this case: The materials involved are the sidewalk (public thoroughfare where walkers can be expected), the medium of chalk (temporary, which lets viewers infer an immediacy to the message), and placement to create an encounter between HS and going to the union.
The message is designed to prompt viewers to infer a claim that suits the content of the stated message. The claim, "You should buy a season ticket very soon." The data is the message itself as a reminder. There are signals in the message that initiate the inference: use of the word "still" in an emphatic position. The callout placement of "Limited Quantity" in a highlighted space separate from the main message (speech bubble). Three !
End of example


Revision [26674]

Edited on 2017-10-05 08:04:33 by MorganAdmin
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We have a theory of //presentational enthymeme// to work with. You may not understand the theory completely, but this exercise will give you a opportunity to develop your understanding more closely.
Before you start, get these materials beside you as you work

- ATheoryOfPresentationalEnthymemes - which I handed out in class on Tues
- Longaker pp 54-70: Enthymeme and Presentational Enthymemes, Fallacies, and your notes on these topics
- review your work with IntroToPresentationalEnthymemes
==== Part 1 ====
Drawing on our first look at presentational enthymemes, encounter the BSU home page with the intent to confront and analyze the presentational enthymemes you can infer from the page.
0. Start a new page titled PresentationalEnthymemesBSUHomePage - followed by your initials. Use this page for your work on this project.
1. Visit and work through the BSU home page at http://www.bemidjistate.edu. You're trying to encounter the page as a user would - not a naive new user who has never seen the page before but as a more general user. You want to press buttons and make bells ring, roll over menus and click links... You're systematically exploring the page for //presentational enthymemes//. **See what presentational enthymemes you can infer from your systematic encounter with the page.** [As Wayne noticed on Tuesday, some images and links will pop up text (tool tips) when they are hovered over. These are typically used to guide vision impaired users, but they still can function as presentational enthymemes.]
2. When you identify a presentational enthymeme, describe it and explain how it works:
- Identify the cap. Then state the claim you're inferring and the data on the page or in your encounter that is related to the claim. Mention what presentational activity is involved. This might be position on page, order of encounter, clicking, scrolling, other features.
- You might need to follow a link to complete the enthymeme, but focus on the home page as a starting point.
3. As part of your analysis, consider //the appeals// each presentational enthymeme draws on. This would include the appeal made by the cap: a sudden encounter makes a different appeal than the expected appearance of menu items in a drop down menu.
**Don't stop with two or three presentational enthymemes**. There are going to be a number of presentational enthymemes active on the page. For this exercise you're looking for a complete catalogue of the page. There are presentational enthymemes possible in every encounter with every interface movement. A drop down menu with text and image might cap an enthymeme. Clicking a link might. Scrolling up to reveal the panel rising on the screen might.
=== Notes on Good Analyses ===
Your analysis should use the terms for analyzing presentational enthymemes: cap, claim, data, warrant, ideational quality (underlying logic of the enthymeme), shared presuppositions, inference ...
Keep in mind your position as someone analyzing rhetorical messages. You are not the audience. You are outside the rhetorical interaction, looking in.
A good analysis focuses on how the presentational enthymeme //functions//, how it works. Set aside how well or poorly it is designed. Hold your criticisms at bay for this exercise.
To consider the enthymeme accurately, consider the presuppositions at work in the rhetorical situation of a university home page in general and BSU's home page specifically: the values, interests, qualities, the expectations that the rhetor presupposes are shared.
==== Part 2 ====
We'll start part 2 in class on Tue 10 Oct, when we'll address //validity//.
Deletions:
We're moving from description last week to analysis this week. We have a theory of //presentational enthymeme// to work with. You may not understand the theory completely (I don't), but I'll sketch it out below on this page, and we'll all apply it to see what emerges about how the BSU homepage makes arguments.
Before you start, read ATheoryOfPresentationalEnthymemes and re-read Longaker concerning enthymemes pp 50 - 70.
==== In Brief ====
Drawing on your work from last week, encounter the BSU home page with the intent to confront and analyze the presentational enthymemes you can infer from the page. Use both week's pages as material to work with.
0. Start a new page titled PresentationalEnthymemesAndTheHomePage - followed by your initials. Use this new page for your work on this project. But keep your notes from BSUHomepageAsArgument open next to the new page. You'll need to draw on those notes to accurately analyze the presentational enthymemes
1. Work through the BSU home page. You're trying to confront the page as a user would - not necessarily a naive new user who has never seen the page before but as a more general user. You're trying to press buttons and make bells ring, roll over menus and click links... You're systematically exploring the page.
Work with the pages from both weeks. Why? To see what regularities are at work - what material and interactions stay the same from week to week, and how they vary from week to week. Those regularities are going to point to material that visitors will use to assemble the ideational enthymeme. **See what presentational enthymemes you can infer from your systematic encounter with the page.**
2. When you identify a presentational enthymeme, explain how it works. State the claim you're inferring and the data on the page or in your encounter that is related to the claim. Mention what presentational stuff is involved. This might be position on page, order of encounter, other features.
**Don't stop with two or three**. There are going to be a number of presentational enthymemes active on the page, especially over two weeks. Right now, we're looking for as many as we can to see how presentational enthymemes work. There are presentational enthymemes possible in every encounter with every interface movement. A drop down menus with text and image might cap an enthymeme. Clicking a link might. Scrolling up to reveal the panel rising on the screen might.
Extra points for the most seen and analyzed.
You might need to follow a link to complete the enthymeme, but focus on the home page as a starting point.
=== Keep in mind ===
As you work, keep in mind your position as someone analyzing rhetorical messages. You are not the audience. You are outside the rhetorical interaction, looking in.
Keep in mind the presuppositions at work in the rhetorical situation of a university home page in general and BSU's home page specifically: the values, interests, qualities, the expectations that the rhetor presupposes are shared.
...


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