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=====Notes on Longaker Chap 5: Style=====
Refer to the Longaker text for terms of description.

==== The Virtues ====
Identifying how a text uses virtues is an analytical result of patterns found at the word and sentence-level. Generalize towards these using evidence at the word-, phrase-, and sentence-level. The terms are not neutral descriptive terms but evaluative, and all of the are contextual.

- clarity
- correctness
- decorum
- urbanity

Virtues are context-specific, and identifying them rests on consideration of the rhetorical situation, especially kairos and the implied addressee. What is clear, correct, or decorum is depended on who and when.

The use of some virtues in specific rhetorical situations is codified - so much so that they are considered universal rules rather than rhetorical choices. Research articles, freshman writing, journalism, memos … A "correct and clear style" has become naturalized so that it appears non-rhetorical.

Using the virtues - conforming - is only one way of addressing them. Rhetors can intentionally refuse to participate, desecrate, or reconstruct stylistic moves in the rhetorical situation. (Stoner and Perkins, working with Branham and Pearce).

==== Diction: Word Choice ====
Considering diction means considering what words are chosen and the meaning those choices create.

- formal, informal
- colloquial
- vulgar
- Anglo-Saxon, Latinate
- scholarly

=== Register ===
Most fields of discourse have distinctive vocabularies and phraseologies. Start with formal and informal registers. But then move tp more specialized registers that the terms are used in and identified with. Just a few: marketing, management, scientific, self-help, motivational prose, academic or scholarly, archaic (thee, thou, but this also includes archaic constructions such as "four score" for 80. "fortnight" for 2 weeks), dialect: ya'll, yeah, oot and aboot, hella ...

See NotesOnHistoricalLayersOfEnglish

==== Types of Style ====
pp 161-165.
The type of style can be layered over register. So a rhetor can use a marketing register in plain style, or grand.

- plain
- middle
- grand

==== Figures of Speech: Tropes ====
**Manipulations of words ** that create changes in meaning. Trope - think //twist// - works on level of word or word-pairs. The twist is use of word, word-pairs or phrase in a way that when parsed shows a non-literal sense: metaphor, metonymy, litotes, and others.

Tropes use words or phrases as a substitute word or phrase with another. Tropes are more pervasive than we might think. Metaphor and metonymy, in fact, seem to be foundational in the language ("foundational" is metaphor: it links the foundation of a physical structure with an abstract structure of language. But my phrasing also pushes it towards metonymy, where the physical foundation stands as //a part// of other elements of language.)

Develop an adept ear for tropes as you work ("develop an adept ear" is metonymy, using an anatomical part //ear// to mean "a critical awareness of their presence". Same replacement as //All hands on deck.//)

=== Metonymy ===
Substitution based on category relation rather than resemblance. All hands on deck. The 20th century saw the beginnings of the digital age (that can also be seen as //personification// ).


==== Figures of Speech: Schemes ====
**Arrangement of multiple words to create patterns in and between sentences**: isocolon, anaphora. Many involve repetition and variation.

Schemes are not replacements but **distinctive arrangements of words or phrases** made by addition, deletion, or rearrangement. They tend to be used at a sentence level but they can be created at the word-level, and across sentences.

- schemes of parallism
- schemes of acculuation

==== Figures of Thought ====
Different than figures of speech. These are gestures or poses done in writing that dramatize thought or attitude. Figures of though are not parseable by looking at sentences. Need to look at longer passages. Have to get to attitudes, states, process, mood as played out in the prose itself. I can phrase things to appear indignant, tired, angry, condescending ... looking at figures lets us talk about *how* that's done.

These figures tend to strike a pose or posture, or dramatize thought or feeling, such as indignation, ratiocination, contempt, cheerfulness ....

Because almost any attitude can be appear in a figure, we use a shortened list, 0n p. 154-156
- highly detailed prose - ekiphrasis,
- adapting a voice of another - proso poeia - can use to mock
- proverb-like declarations delivered as deep wisdom - sententia; today is the first day of the rest of your life ...
- rhetorical question - ero tema
- prae teri tio - mentioning something by saying you won't mention it.
- aporia - words fail me. talking about being unable to talk about something.
- apo sio pesis - breaking off to fall silent. trump's, "I don't know ..." is one, or "you tell me ..." leaving the conclusion open but suggested.


==== Emoticons and emoji====
Emoticons and emoji seem to fit as figures of thought. But there's a difference between a figure and the emoticon. The emoticon articulates the attitude by adding to rather than being part of the expression itself.

{{image url="http://getemoji.com/assets/og/mobile.png" width="376"}}
21st century emoji

=== Common Figures in GIF Circulation ===
If a sentence or image is //memorable//, there are stylistic features at work. Find them. If you see a sentence or image as //symbolic//, there are stylistic moves in operation.

- motivational statements and (what we assume are) motivational quotes. //sentenia//. But these can be more closely identified: maxim, proverb, homily … statements of paradox. As a figure of thought, sentenia uses a pose or posture to argue an appropriate towards things. Look at register and the sentence itself: you may find rhythm, repetition, parallelism and other schemes being used in the statement.

- impersonation. Putting on the voice of another. Imitating another. //prosopopoiea//. Visually, this may be close to metonymy.
- a short conversation or exchange. //dialogism//.
- paradox. this can appear as type of sentenia - a sort of riddle.
- //entheyme//. a lot of these are circulating as apostrophes. once you have one, unpack the argument and look again at the actual prose to see how the scheme is working.
- par - tay! Just.Get.Off! //metaplasm//. altering common words and expressions in various way. Some sms acronyms might fall under this term. OMG, now spoken as Oh Em Gee! Might also apply to visual figures that involve alteration of a common scene.

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Sentence Style

Start at sentence level, looking at

- sentence construction
- register: diction, word choice. Refer to Longaker for the terms.
- figures - Longaker for terms.
- schemes - Longaker for terms.

Patterns: Watch for patterns of use, as well as anomalies.

=== Some sentence construction terms ===
(adapted from Lanham, //Analyzing Prose//, 2nd ed)
- parataxis: clauses or items at the same syntactic level, typically using coordinators.
- hypotaxis: items hierarchically arranged, typically by subordinators.

- running style: using serial syntax, registering a sequence of as though occurring to attention. tends towards parataxis. tends to show figures of parathentical qualification, anaphora, perhaps hesitation, sequential addition. tends to be seen as inartistic, unthought-out and consequently authentic and honest. pretends towards authenticity.
- periodic: using syntax that is not completed until the end of the sentence, which exemplifies a way of reasoning. tends towards hypotaxis. tends to use figures of balance, parallelism, suspension, climax. tends to be seen as designed, considered, and less authentic. admits its construction.






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