- freond, aefter, full, hand, clean, inn, land, lust, north, baec, tear, sleep, worth, biernan, lof, death. God, heaven, hell, fiend, doom.
- bread, milk, water, sun, moon, sky, house ...
- see, run, look, fall, stand, drop ...
Some words of Greek origin came in with religion at this time:
- priest, alter, relic, shrine, alms, disciple ...
Circa 800 CE, the Danes invade English and bring some Scandinavian additions to the language. These are worth remarking because some of them are adapted into OE syntax: they, get, are.
- they, dirt, hit, flat, egg, give, are, get, leg, raise, want, die, and words starting with sk- : scare, sky, skirt, scrap, skill, skin.
- Legal terms: felony, attorney, inquest, jury, plaintiff, sue, plea, verdict, warrant, bailiff, bail, crime, depose, fine, perjury.
- Military terms: soldier, lieutenant, army, enemy, garrison, guard, retreat, battle.
- Food: pork, beef, veal, mutton, venison, poultry | pig, cow, calf, sheep, deer and stag, chicken
OE core and Norman French borrowings co-existed, and acquired different meanings and usage domains (We call them registers.)
- strength / vigor
- hearty / cordial
- house / mansion
- wish / desire
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The scholarly additions tend to be polysyllabic (L, OE would say, long), and aligned with scholarly and legal domains that tend to fall outside everyday events. They gain a sense of being untrustworthy and obfuscatious. But, Fahnestock asserts, "Many of these learned borrowings have become indispensable for any communication not about everyday objects and topics" (28).
- fact, explain, exist, necessitate, crisis, contradict, appropriate, relaxation, external, scheme (cf plan), system, conspicuous, obstruction, habitual, expensive.
And one set over time
- phoney (Gaelic), fake (19th century) false (OFr (artificial (OFr), simulated (L)
[Written passages] in which the core vocabulary dominates ... will strike most English users as simple and straightforward. This effect occurs because core words ... are also the oldest in the experience of native speakers: they are the first heard, the first spoken, the first read, the first written. They are associated with simple messages, and often with immediate, familial, and physical contexts. They have the [rhetorical] force of familiarity and truthfulness. Hence texts perceived as clear and even sincere will tend to feature words from the OE core of the language. (32-3)