Chapter 8 through 10 Notes

8: May The Excessive Force Be With You: Memes As Political Participation

Political memes: Political Participation: "but regardless of their emotional keying, political memes are about making a point-- participating in a debate about how the world should look and the best way to get there.

Three functions:

1)Memes are forms of persuasion or political advocacy.
2)Memes as grassroots action.
3)Memes as modes of expression and public discourse
These are found in both democratic and nondemocratic contexts
(nondemocratic: internet memes may have democratic subversion)

Memes as Political Action and Discourse: Occupy Wall Street and Memetic Photos

Citizen Empowerment:

Occupy Wall Street, 2011

Political Memetic Photos

Memes as Democratic Subversion: The Case of China

9: When Internet Memes Go Global

-Internet memes are rarely confined to a single geographic location
-Internet: suited to cross-national large-scale meme distribution
-about the users, not the technology
Globalization: developing process of complex interconnections between societies, cultures, institutions and individuals worldwide.
-Internet: international network of networks
-"The West to the rest"
"In the last decade Internet memes have indeed becomes powerful-- yet often invisible-- agents of globalization"
-Cyberspace is shaped by material, social, linguistic, and cultural context
"Glocalization"-- Roland Robertson: the prices that telescope the global and local sales to make a blend
-language, commodification, and commercialization
-Studies showed that people use the internet locally to communicate with people and institutions in their own country or region.
Language: Internet started out in English, "linguistic imperialism", but dominance of English is declining, 2/3 now aren't English speaking
User-generated globalization: a process in which memes are translated, customized, and distributed
This idea has gone unnoticed because: it is not driven by high-profile companies, this arena of globalization does not explicitly involve commerce, and once a text is translated its foriegn origins become invisible.
-Original text meaning and content changes drastically with online translations

10: Future Directions For Internet Meme Research

Meme, Internet Meme, Viral, Memetic
The politics of memetic participation, Internet memes as a language, memes and political change, Viral and memetic success

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