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This is an old revision of ChapterThreeTF made by tkristine on 2017-09-19 11:00:02.


Chapter 3: Argumentation
An argument seeks to connect a new claim to an audience's presuppositions
A direct argument give overt reasons, makes overt connections, draw overt conclusions. Typically a written text or formal speech.
An indirect argument presents sets of ideas, images, and manages them in an effort to get the audience to draw specific conclusions. Typically informal exchange inspect or informal text.
Pistes: Ethos, Pathos, Logos: All operating at the same time. An arguments cannot simply be made up of just one.
Ethos: Ethical, reputation, credentials, practical knowledge, fair-mindedness, honesty, goodwill, trust, general moral quality. Ethos alone does not persuade. It simply petitions the audience.
Pathos: an appeal to the emotions of the audience to believe or do something. "Pathetic". Desires, fear, anger, love... supposed to have shared values at play. This does not persuade, it sets you up for persuasion.
Logos: an appeal to an idea, fact, category, and reasoning-- not necessarily logic, but the actual reasoning presented. In direct argument, logos appears as the stated reasons and evidence given in support, and as rationale that connects the two. Logos=word. Here logos=reasoning. Traditionally, logos is presented as a direct chain of reasons for concluding something, often with the reasoning articulated. But just presenting a statement as a fact can direct an argument.

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