Chapter 3: Argumentation

An argument seeks to connect a new claim to an audience's presuppositions
A direct argument give overt reasons, makes overt connections, draw overt conclusions. Typically a written text or formal speech.
An indirect argument presents sets of ideas, images, and manages them in an effort to get the audience to draw specific conclusions. Typically informal exchange inspect or informal text.
Pistes: Ethos, Pathos, Logos: All operating at the same time. An arguments cannot simply be made up of just one.
Ethos: Ethical, reputation, credentials, practical knowledge, fair-mindedness, honesty, goodwill, trust, general moral quality. Ethos alone does not persuade. It simply petitions the audience. Character of the piece.
Pathos: an appeal to the emotions of the audience to believe or do something. "Pathetic". Desires, fear, anger, love... supposed to have shared values at play. This does not persuade, it sets you up for persuasion.
Logos: an appeal to an idea, fact, category, and reasoning-- not necessarily logic, but the actual reasoning presented. In direct argument, logos appears as the stated reasons and evidence given in support, and as rationale that connects the two. Logos=word. Here logos=reasoning. Traditionally, logos is presented as a direct chain of reasons for concluding something, often with the reasoning articulated. But just presenting a statement as a fact can direct an argument. I.E. a menu bar on a website

Simultaneous dimensions of persuasion
Pistis may be a proof in the modern sense, in which case it could inspire a high degree of confidence or even certainty. Some pistes fall short of certainty, yet they can be reasons for some degree of faith in an idea.

Artistic forms of pistes are created through the rhetor's art. Techne: the rhetor's self-presentation, the rhetor's reasoning, and the rhetor's handling of the audience's emotions.
Inartistic (atechnic) pisteis: forms of evidence that are simply collected and used. I.E. witness testimony, citations from authorities, documents, contracts, physical evidence. These are often crucial to an argument.
Datum: item of information
Claim: inference/response
Warrant: presupposition
Backing-- BECAUSE
Restriction-- UNLESS

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