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This can be identified as a pun, obviously.
Description: Spock glares knowingly across the control room (who knows who he is addressing), petting a black cat. The black cat looks to be quite content--one eye pinched shut in elation.

Rhetorical Situation: It's safe to say that the implied rhetor is both a fan of Star Trek and cats--which can be extended to the intended addressee as well. If the viewer was not aware of Star Trek and Spock's famous words, then this meme would not make total sense (the prospurr part of it would still be kind of funny--but the joke would be mostly lost).

 (image: http://www.fullredneck.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Funny-Russia-Meme-20.jpg)

This can also be identified as a pun.
Description: Vladimir Putin tries on some non-traditional sunglasses in the midst of a crowd. He looks to be lightly amused.

Rhetorical situation: This pun would not be identifiable if the viewer was not aware of current affairs (definitely not if they were unaware of who Putin is). The implied rhetor, therefore, must be aware of current happenings in the world--and the intended addressee must also be on a similar level of awareness. The meme itself is topical (being that Putin and the nation he commands are very much in the public's eye these days--thanks to the election). It is not easy to say how the implied rhetor actually feels about Putin (I'm pretty sure that the meme isn't meant to actually comment on any topical issues--but it does, however, rely on current topical issues in order to deliver its 'rhetorical' message).

 (image: https://cdn.pastemagazine.com/www/system/images/photo_albums/stranger-things-memes/large/stranger-things-4.jpg?1384968217)

This can be identified as enallage. The misspelled word "deets" meaning "details".
Description: Barbara waits for Nancy (characters in the Netflix show: Stranger Things) to relate some gossip to her in the hallway at school.

Rhetorical situation: This enallage does not necessarily rely on the viewer having watched Stranger Things, but it would definitely be helpful if so. The implied rhetor has obviously watched the show, but the joke itself has nothing to do with the show. Instead, the joke basically caters to people who are aware of and employ current pop-culture abbreviations/misspellings (like "deets") in everyday conversation. In this, the intended addressee is most likely young and immersed in pop-culture. Also, the intended addressee is someone who has or has had a close friend--where such hushed conversations occur.

 (image: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/d4/58/b9/d458b9dbb4dd236491bcb8ed5b5edab7.jpg)

This can also be identified as an enallage. The misspelled word "madafukas" meaning "motherfuckers".
Description: Ken Jeong (I think that's who it is), stoked about Friday, says: "It's Friday, madafukas!"--a hazy cityscape in the background.

Rhetorical situation: This meme does not really rely on any pop-culture knowledge in order to be funny (although it obviously helps, if you are aware of Ken Jeong as an actor). It's obvious what "madafukas" means. The implied rhetor is someone who enjoys the use of profanity (and poking fun at the way that English-spoken expletives sound [phonetically] when spoken by folks of a different ethnicity [Although I think Ken Jeong has a pretty normal English-speaking accent]). The intended addressee also sees the humor in profanity. It can also be implied that the rhetor is someone who works a normal 9-5 job Monday through Friday (weekends mean nothing to me--being that I've been working service jobs for the last ten years).

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This can be identified as an anadiplosis.

Description: Adam Sandler uses an anadiplosis to justify the act of consuming alcohol.

Rhetorical situation:
This meme doesn't rely on pop-culture to get its message across (but it becomes more funny if you've seen Billy Madison). The implied rhetor knows his/her movies, and enjoys alcohol. It can also be implied that the rhetor perhaps grew up in a (possibly religious) household that hindered his/her efforts to enjoy a good night of drinking with friends--and that the rhetor learned how to use rhetoric and the words of Scripture to turn such arguments around on his/her parents or guardians. Also, the rhetorical situation is occurring in a classroom--which could possibly imply that this argument could likely take place in school (being that teachers [in grades K-12] try their best to instill [not quite religious, but] traditional values in students).

 (image: https://s.blogcdn.com/slideshows/images/slides/387/436/1/S3874361/slug/l/game-of-thrones-meme-5-1-2.jpg)

This is a correctio.

Description: George R.R. Martin (author of A Song of Ice and Fire series), in what looks to be an interview, responds to the accusation that he always kills off his main characters--first saying that he doesn't always do so, then correcting himself saying that he always does so.

Rhetorical situation: This meme would mean pretty much nothing to someone who has not read Martin's series, or watched the HBO adaptation. There is no other show in history (I'm pretty sure) where so many main characters have died in shocking, heart-breaking ways. The implied rhetor is someone who is paradoxically both PISSED at Martin for killing beloved characters and HOPELESSLY enthralled with Martin's continuing story arc. The intended addressee is someone who is up to speed on the series, and hopefully someone who also feels the same way about Martin's tendency to kill off beloved characters in brutal ways.

 (image: https://uproxx.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/game-of-thrones-memes-603-02.jpg?quality=90&w=650)

This is an erotema (rhetorical question).

Description: Brad Pitt's character from the movie Seven, asks "What's in the tower!?" (the tower being an important plot device in Game of Thrones [don't worry, I won't spoil anything if you haven't seen it]).

Rhetorical situation: This meme would not make any sense to anyone who has not seen both Seven and Game of Thrones. The implied rhetor completely relies on the intended addressee having seen them. In both the movie and the series, both questions are obviously answered. However, in this rhetorical situation, the answers are not what's important. Instead, it is only necessary to make the connection between the two to understand the joke. In that, the rhetorical question "What's in the tower!?" is effective (if only by being really funny).

 (image: http://cdn.ebaumsworld.com/mediaFiles/picture/1134907/84994212.jpg)

This is both a pun and a metaphor.

Description: Joffrey (from Game of Thrones) sits on a barrel, fuming over something (he fumes over a lot of things in the show).

Rhetorical situation: Once again, this meme doesn't totally rely on the intended addressee having seen Game of Thrones, but it would be more effective if so (Joffrey's parents are brother and sister). However, both the pun and the metaphor are identifiable without this knowledge (the pun: inbred meaning "in bread", the metaphor: "I'd be a sandwich").
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