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=====Burbules's Handlst of Links=====
>>{{image url="" width="350px"}}
[[ Catechresis]]. Linking the name of the rhetorical figure to this example creates a pun. [[ Know Your Meme]] - metonymy, identity, perhaps antistasis. Visual puns?

[[ BSU About page]] - identity . Identity in the link text "About" leading to //these commonalities// in further internal and external links. Other elements: pronoun, use of imperative, terms of unity. The links on this page follow the same trope of identity. Synecdoche: appears in the global nav bar and side nav. Parts are categorized as parts of a whole. - examples of identity in categorycollections, possibly of antistasis, metonymy in some embedded links.

Hot Links -

[[ i can haz cheezeburger]] - Catechresis. And linking the name of the rhetorical figure to this example is a pun.
from Burbules, "Rhetorics of the Web"

Part of the difficulty in seeing links as rhetorical figures is that we've naturalized links into generalized terms of "more ..." or "example..." or "source." We also tend to not read the link text, and even less do we read the target text to parse out the relation between them. On the designer's side, they aren't //conscientiously// using links as figures, either. But that doesn't mean there aren't figures at work on the designers and writers who are uncritical of the persuasion of the figure.

Few of us are aware of metaphors and metonymies we use - often which naturalize exclusion and inclusion. The BSU About page, for instance, excludes in its links more than it includes. In print, an About page would be limited physically. On the web, BSU about could link to almost anything they would like to include as part of their identity. They choose to link to a limited set of things. It is highly selective, and draws on our willingness not to come at the links critically.

Compare, for instance, the About page of MIT.

Burbles's chapter in //Page to Screen// is to bring the figures to the foreground as a way of looking critically at how links //are// used and //can be// used.

A comparison, an equation, between apparently dissimilar objects, inviting the listener or reader to see points of similarity between them while also inviting a change in the originally related concepts by "carrying over" previously unrelated characteristics from one to the other. Like simile, metaphor asks us to see one thing as another: "my beloved is a rose," "the city is a cesspool," "school is jail."

Web links can be read as metaphors when apparently unrelated textual points are associated: a link from a page listing Political Organizations to a page on the Catholic Church might cause a sense of puzzlement, or outrage, or insight - or it might be taken for granted unreflectively - but considered as a metaphor it might make a reader think about politics and religion in a different way.


An association not by similarity, but by contiguity, //relations in practice//. Baseball and football have affinities by both being sports; baseball and hot dogs have a metonymic affinity only because in American culture they often appear together

A Web link, almost by definition, has the potential to become metonymic, with repetition. Most users do not have to have it explained any longer that clicking on a pentagon-shaped icon will take them "home," that is to the index or entry-page of a set of interlinked pages. The icon could be, for example, a pyramid shape just as easily, and the language of return would be less domestic, and more vertically connotative. A page labeled "Vacation Spots" may take one to information about "How to Avoid Pickpockets." On a broader scale, the increase of clickable icons sponsored by private companies, crowding the screens of pages that have nothing to do with their product, creates a metonymic space that continually reminds the user that the Web is for sale, and that commercial interests (the fastest-growing category of Web page producers, by far) underwrite more and more of what is presented there.

- BSU site. Probably all US university sites. Used to create identity.
- Appears in links under category heads:

Relating of categorical wholes to particular instances, or of parts to wholes. part of something is used as a shorthand for the thing as a whole or vice versa: "the mustache came back to the bar and asked for another beer; he already had a six-pack inside of him." In the context of Web links, this trope is particularly influential in identifying, or suggesting, relations of categorical inclusion: a list of "Human Rights Violations" may include links to pages dealing with corporal punishment in schools, or vice versa.

The power to register superodinate categories to which particulars are subsumed is a special way of influencing people's conceptual and normative thinking Because different categorical wholes are always possible, clustering and organizing things in different ways, and because identifying and adjudicating particulars //as// instances is a way of regulating them, such determinations must be recognized as such and brought into question. Links make such associations, but do so in a way that is seldom made problematic; yet because such categorical links are often the gateway that controls access to that information, clustering and relating items in one way or another is more than a matter of convenience ... it becomes a method of determining how people think about a subject.

Exaggeration for the sake of tropic emphasis (or its opposite, understatement for the same effect): "my office was flooded with mail" (or, for the opposite, "it was a little warm in Egypt when we visited").

The dynamics of the World Wide Web are essentially hyperbolic (starting with its name): there is a tacit implication with each collection, each archive, each search engine, of a degree of comprehensiveness beyond its actual scope. nothing in its self-descriptions, or its link attributes - "Movie Guide," "Dining in San Francisco," and so on - suggest that what is not included may be more important than what is.

- Pivot: Time flys like the wind. Fruit flies like a banana.
- Keyword search results creates antistases, "mixing the momentous and the trivial, the local and the global, the contemporary and the historic." Google it.
- When created as antistasis, the link will "highlight the ways in which terms or concepts change significance in different contexts."

Involves the repetition of a word - the "same" word - in a different or contrasting context ("whenever I fly in an airplane I feel trapped, as if I were a fly in a bottle"). Many Web links work in this way: //using a particular word or phrase as a pivot point from one context to a very different one//. Key-word search engines are based almost entirely on this principle. For example, in reading an on-line article describing someone's vacation to San Francisco, the term "North Beach" might be linked to a page of information about Italian Restaurants, on another to strip bars, and on another to the Beat Poets from the 1960s; the "same" North Beach in one sense, but in another sense very different ones, separated in time and spirit. //The effect of such links, especially when the differences in context and significance are not made explicit, is to put all phenomena within the same semic space, eliding time, space, and discursive context, making all these information points simply grist for the contemporary reader.//

There is a metonymic element at work here as well; as in those encyclopedias or calendar programs that connect together everything that happened on a particular day in history ("September 24: on this day, the President signed the Voting Rights Act into law; the Baltimore Orioles beat the New York Yankees 4-2; the movie 'Singing in the Rain' opened in Los Angeles; a housewife in Akron, Ohio won the Betty Crocker Cookoff with her recipe for Upside-Down Blueberry Cake; in Pakistan government troops used clubs to disperse a crowd of protesters; a panda bear in the Peking zoo became the first to give birth in captivity; etc."). As noted previously, one of the primary effects of the Web is such juxtaposition of apparently unrelated points of information and reduction of all to the same surface level of significance: a bricolage of elements, mixing the momentous and the trivial, the local and the global, the contemporary and the historic; inviting multiple - and frequently untestable - interpretations of significance that can be as personal and idiosyncratic as one wishes. As such points of information all pivot around a common date, or a particular location, or a given word, they are brought into an association that may, from different perspectives, seem arbitrary or trivial, or on the other hand meaningful and explanatory; at the same time, the pivotal word or concept shifts and broadens in significance. //Antistasis invites such connections by invoking "the same" in a way that reveals difference.//.

- Seen in category navigation and callout lists of links. The list identifies //all these links are the same as members of a class//.
- Can be created using synecdoche.
- Seen in blog rolls in connecting others.
- When created as a figure of identity, the link will highlight "unity and commonality."

It may seem strange to include identity as a trope, but it is useful here to include it as a companion and contrast to antistasis. In associations of identity, the "same" linking point is used to highlight points of commonality, not difference. Where other tropes, such as metaphor or simile, invite comparisons of similarity across different items; identity denies difference and emphasizes equivalence ("the woman who came into the office this morning is the surgeon who operated on my son last year"). Such relations typically depend on realist assumptions about co-referentiality or on logical tautologies; but here I want to emphasize the tropic effect of such assertions in practical contexts, including the Web.

Unlike antistasis, which tends to highlight the ways in which terms or concepts change significance in different contexts, //identity tends to hypostasize meanings, to freeze them, by suggesting the resistance of core meaning to changing context//. In the context of the Web, such associations tend to //draw lines of connection through pages//, from different people or institutions, different cultures, or different countries, //as if these reference points established a unifying net that spans the surface multiplicity of Web content and contexts//. Beneath the particular instantiations of such an association is an underlying figure of interwoven unity and commonality; one image of the Web, but one that excludes and obscures at least as much as it highlights.

===Sequence and cause-and-effect===
These tropes, too, could be given a very literal and nonfigurative interpretation; that they indicate real relations, not simply allusive ones. But without engaging that dispute here, there is an effect of such associations, whether based on "real" relations or not, that may be indistinguishable from the reader's side.

Links that suggest "this and then that" or "this because of that" (for instance, the rock music/drug use example mentioned earlier) do much more than simply associate ideas or information points; they assert, or imply, beliefs about the world outside of the Web.* But because they do not specify or explain such connections, but simply manifest them, they are more difficult to recognize and question; they are simply followed, in many cases, carrying the reader with them to inferences that often could be drawn quite differently, or could be criticized and rejected.

- I can haz cheezeburger. Links image and text. "any two things can be linked, even a raven and a writing desk, and with that link, ... a process of semic movement begins; the connection becomes part of a public space, a community of discourse, which, as others find and follow that link, creates a new avenue of association."
- In links, it in what appears initially as a puzzling connection - until the particular becomes familiar.
- When //intentionally// created, it can bring new relationships into sight.

This trope is in some ways the most interesting of them all. Though sometimes characterized as a "far-fetched" metaphor, or as a strict misuse of language ("the belly of the river," which I just made up at random), catechresis is the recognition that such apparent "misuses" are how many tropes originally begin - and that these novel, strange instances might spark reflections just as revealing and delightful as those one recognizes more readily (if a river can have a mouth, why not a belly? - perhaps the belly of the river rumbled - perhaps it is the point at which the river bends - perhaps it swelled, pregnant with fish). At a deeper level, catechresis is the originary form of changes in language generally: "far-fetched" uses of familiar words in a new context; slang; accidental malapropisms; street patter that purposely uses coded terms to mislead authorities ("horse" for heroin, etc. ) - over time, such uses become familiar and normalized, become "literal" (is "the hands of a clock" metaphorical or literal, today? (see Burbules, Schraw, and Trathen, 1989)).

In the context of the Web, catechresis becomes a trope for the basic working of the link, generally: any two things can be linked, even a raven and a writing desk, and with that link, instantaneously, a process of semic movement begins; the connection becomes part of a public space, a community of discourse, which, as others find and follow that link, creates a new avenue of association - beginning tropically or ironically, perhaps, but gradually taking its own path of development and normalization. It could be that, before long, a new word processing will be called, jokingly, "Raven"; or someone will hand-carve a desk, made with black wood, using bird shapes as a decorative feature; or the word "raven" will be used casually to refer to office furniture in general ("I wish these ravens would fly up here themselves so I didn't have to call the movers"). Far-fetched or not, such developments are indistinguishable from examples that we do not see any longer as "far-fetched" at all. Two key points follow: first, we never can know which uses will become accepted and standardized, so it is impossible to separate in any strict way proper uses from misuses (it may be simply a judgment made from within a particular time frame); second, the Web, because of its global and cross-cultural span, because of its linked architecture, and because it currently requires most pages to be filtered into and through a common language, English, will become (is already becoming) a major new avenue in which malapropisms, slang, and far-fetched associative links will become familiar and, before long, normalized.


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